Department Of Geography

Syllabus

M.A./ M.SC. (GEOGRAPHY)

SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS

(July 2019 Onwards)

 

Semester and Course No.

Nomenclature

Max. Marks

Hours of Teaching per week

SEMESTER I

COURSE-I

Geomorphology

100

6 Hours

COURSE-II

Climatology

100

6 Hours

COURSE-III

Human Geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-IV

Cartography

100

6 Hours

SEMESTER-II

COURSE-V

Economic Geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-VI

Population Geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-VII

Bio-geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-VIII

Fundamentals of Geographical Information System (GIS)

100

6 Hours

SEMESTER-III

COURSE-IX

Regional Planning

100

6 Hours

COURSE-X

Quantitative Techniques in Geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-XI

History of Geographical Thought

100

6 Hours

COURSE-XII

Field Survey

100

6 Hours

SEMESTER-IV

COURSE-XIII

Geography of Himachal Pradesh

100

6 Hours

COURSE-XIV

Cultural Geography

100

6 Hours

COURSE-XV

Geography of Social Well-being

100

6 Hours

COURSE-XVI

Fundamentals of Remote Sensing

100

6 Hours

 

Total

1600

     96 Hours

 

 

 

 

COURSE-I   GEOMORPHOLOGY

                                          Max.Marks: 100                                                                                

                                                Unit I

Definition, nature and scope of geomorphology. Approaches to and methods of geomorphological analysis.

Some fundamental concepts in geomorphology: geological structure and landforms, uniformitarianism, characteristic assemblages of landforms, sequential changes in landforms, climatic geomorphology.

                                            Unit II

Structural geomorphology: Characteristics and topographic expression of fault and fold structures.

Mountain and mountain building theories by Suess and Argan, Kober and Holmes. Plate tectonics and mountain building.

Forces of crustal instability: Isostasy, plate tectonics, and vulcanicity

                                                Unit III

Meaning, causes, types and geomorphic significance of weathering and mass-movement.

Concept of Hill-slope development approaches to slope studies, slope elements.

Theories of slope evolution: Slope decline theory by Davis, Slope replacement by Penck and parallel retreat by King.

                                       Unit IV

Fluvial, Periglacial, Glacial, and Eolian processes and landforms.

Meaning of denudation chronology and erosion surfaces, Peneplain concept.

                                         Unit V

Meaning and types of drainage systems and patterns.

Concept of river capture.

Concept of Applied geomorphology: Geomorphology and Harzard management, Geomorphology and Urbanization, Geomorphology and hydrology.

Concept of Anthropogenic geomorphology: Man and mass-movement, man and river processes, man and coastal processes.

 

Notes for paper setter and the students:

 

i)              Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.

ii)             100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)           Written examination                                           80 marks

(b)            Internal assessment                                           20 marks

iii)            Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the university.          The question paper for the written examination shall be set by the external examiner as per the university norms.

iv)           Internal assessment marks would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance (5 marks) and classroom performance (15 marks). The marks in the classroom attendance would be given in the following manner: ( upto 75% : Nil; 75 -80%  : 1; 81-85% : 2; 86-90% : 3; 91-95 : 4 and above 95 : 5) The classroom performance of the students would be assessed by the course teacher on the basis of performance in class room test(s)/ seminar(s)/ class room assignment(s) as per the choice of the course teacher.

v)           The paper would be set from the syllabus covering the full content. The question paper in this course will be divided into two parts. Part-1 will be compulsory and consist of twenty multiple choice type/true or false/ very short answer type questions carrying 1 Mark each. Part II will consist of 10 deive(long answer type) questions, two from each unit are to be framed, out of which candidates will have to attempt five questions selecting one from each unit. Each question carries 12 marks.

 

 

Suggested Readings:

 

  1. Bloom, A.L. (1979) Geomorphology, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
  2. Dayal,P. (1995) A Textbook of Geomorphology, Patna: Shukla Book Depot.
  3. Embleton, C. and King, C.A.M. (1975) Glacial Geomorphology, London: Edward Arnold.
  4. Fairbridge, R.W. (1968) Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, New York: Reinholds.
  5. Morisawa, M (1968) Streams, New York: McGraw Hill.
  6. Pitty, A.F. (1982) The Nature of Geomorphology, New York:Methuen.
  7. Rice, R.J. (1990) Fundamentals of Geomorphology, London: ELBSL.
  8. Schumn, S. (1977) The Fluvial System, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  9. Sharma, Anurag (1993) Ecology of Landslide Damages, Jaipur: Pointer Publishers.
  10. Sharma, H.S.(ed.) (1980) Perspectives in Geomorphology, New Delhi: Concept.
  11. Sharma, V.K. (1986) Geomorphology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.
  12. Singh, Savindra (1998) Geomorphology, Allahabad: Prayag Pustak Bhawan.
  13. Small, R.J. (1978) The Study of Landforms, Cambridge: Cambridge University.
  14. Sparks, B.W. (1960) Geomorphology, London: Longman.
  15. Strahler, A.N. (1992) Physical Geography, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  16. Thornbury, W.D. (1969) Principles of Geomorphology, New York: John Wiley and Sons.

 

 

COURSE-II   CLIMATOLOGY

 

Maximum Marks:100

Unit-I

Compositional and thermal structure of the atmosphere, Insolation: Solar source, heat balance of the earth, greenhouse effect and global warming, vertical and horizontal distribution of temperature

Unit-II

Atmospheric motion: Forces controlling motion of air, vertical motion and verticity, local winds, jet stream, general circulation in the atmosphere; Atmospheric moisture: humidity, evaporation, condensation, precipitation: formation, types, acid rain, world pattern of precipitation

Unit-III

Tropical, temperate and high latitude weather systems- concept of air masses and atmospheric disturbances, ocean atmospheric interaction- El Nino, southern oscillation (ENSO) and La Nina, monsoon winds, norwesters and cyclones, Tropical and Temperate phenomena, climate of India and its controls: Eastern disturbances.

Unit – IV

Climatic classification of Keepen, and Thornthwaite, Major climates of the world-tropical, temperate, desert and mountain climate.

Unit-V

Climatic Changes: Ozone Depletion; Global Warming: Strengthening of Greenhouse effect; Evidences and Possible causes of global warming; Environmental impacts of global warming and societal responses.

 

Notes for paper setter and students

 

  1. Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.

ii)                    100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)           Written examination                                           80 marks

(b)            Internal assessment                                           20 marks

iii)            Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the university.          The question paper for the written examination shall be set by the external examiner as per the university norms.

iv)           Internal assessment marks would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance (5 marks) and classroom performance (15 marks). The marks in the classroom attendance would be given in the following manner: ( upto 75% : Nil; 75 -80%  : 1; 81-85% : 2; 86-90% : 3; 91-95 : 4 and above 95 : 5). The classroom performance of the students would be assessed by the course teacher on the basis of performance in class room test(s)/ seminar(s)/ class room assignment(s) as per the choice of the course teacher.

v)            The paper would be set from the syllabus covering the full content. The question paper in this course will be divided into two parts. Part-1 will be compulsory and consist of  twenty multiple choice type/true or false/ very short answer type questions carrying 1 Mark each. Part II will consist of 10 deive(long answer type) questions, two from each unit are to be framed, out of which candidates will have to attempt five questions selecting one from each unit. Each question carries 12 marks.

 

Suggested Readings

 

  1. Barry, R.G. and Chorley P.J., Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Routledge, London and New York, 1998.
  2. Critchfield, J.H.: General Climatology, Prentice Hall, India, New Delhi, 1993.
  3. Das, P.K.: Monsoons National Book Trust, New Delhi, 1987.
  4. Fein, J.S. and Stephens, P.N.: Monsoons, Wiley Inter-science, 1987.
  5. India Met, Deptt.: Climatological Tables of Observatories in India, govt. of India, 1968.
  6. Lal. D.S.: Climatology, Chaitanya Publications, Allahabad, 1986.
  7. Lydolph, P.E.: The Climate of the Earth, Rowman, 1985.
  8. Menon, P.A.: Out Weather, N.B.T., New Delhi, 1989.
  9. Oliver, J.E. and John J. Hidore. 2002. Climatology- An Atmospheric Science (2nd Ed.) Pearson Education (Low Price Edition).
  10. Peterson, s.: Introduction to Meteorology, McGraw Hill Book, London, 1969.
  11. Robinson, P.J. and Henderson S.: Contemporary Climatology, Henow, 1999.
  12. Thompson, R.D. and Perry, A (ed.): Applied Climatology, Principles and Practice, Rourtledge, London 1997.

 

 

 

COURSE –III: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

Max. Marks: 100

UNIT-I

Human Geography: Changing Scales of Experience

  • Human Geography versus Human Ecology, Subject Matter of Human Geography, Human Geography through the corridors of time.
  • Pre capitalist world: A classification of Human Societies; Defining capitalism, organized capitalism and its salient features, disorganisation of capitalism.

 

UNIT-II

Urbanism, Globalization and Changing Culture

  • Defining Urban area: Town and City, Origin and Growth of Urbanization in India.
  • Concept of Globalization, Cultural globalization, Impact of globalization on Indian culture.

UNIT-III

Population and Food Suuply

  • Population Growth and Food Supply, Demographic transition model and Emergence of second demographic transition, Population Ageing and development

                                                                

UNIT-IV

Geopolitical Traditions and States

  • Organic Theory of State, German Geopolitics, Heartland and Rimland Theories, Concept of State, Nation and Nation-States,  Concept of  Boundaries, their classification  and Frontiers.   

UNIT-V

Uneven Global Development and Sustainability

·Geography and Third world Development, Conceptions of Development-the Modernization and Dependency Schools

  •     Sustainable Development and environmental sustainability with reference to India.

 

Notes for paper setter and students

 

i)              Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.

ii)             100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)           Written examination                                           80 marks

(b)            Internal assessment                                           20 marks

iii)            Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the university.          The question paper for the written examination shall be set by the external examiner as per the university norms.

iv)           Internal assessment marks would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance (5 marks) and classroom performance (15 marks). The marks in the classroom attendance would be given in the following manner: ( upto 75% : Nil; 75 -80%  : 1; 81-85% : 2; 86-90% : 3; 91-95 : 4 and above 95 : 5). The classroom performance of the students would be assessed by the course teacher on the basis of performance in class room test(s)/ seminar(s)/ class room assignment(s) as per the choice of the course teacher.

v)            The paper would be set from the syllabus covering the full content. The question paper in this course will be divided into two parts. Part-1 will be compulsory and consist of twenty multiple choice type/true or false/ very short answer type questions carrying 1 Mark each. Part II will consist of 10 deive(long answer type) questions, two from each unit are to be framed, out of which candidates will have to attempt five questions selecting one from each unit. Each question carries 12 marks.

 

Books Recommended:

Bergwan, Edward E (1995). Human Geography: Culture, Connections and Landscape, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Carr, M.  (1987). Patterns, Process and Change in Human Geography. MacMillan Education, London.

Cloke, P., Crang, P. and Goodwin, M (1999). Introducing Human Geographies. Arnold, London.

Daniels, P., Bradshaw, M., Shaw, D and Sidaway, J. (2001). Human Geography: Issues for the 21st Century. Pearson, Delhi.

DeBlij H.J. (1996). Human Geography, Culture, Society and Space. John Wiley, New York.

Fellmah, J.L. (1997).Human Geography- Landscapes of Human Activities. Brown and Benchman Pub., U.S.A.

Johnston, R.J. (1994).Dictionary of Human Geography. Balckwell, Oxford.

Majid Husain. (2002). Human Geography. Rawat Publications.

McBride, P.J.(1996).Human Geography Systems, Patterns and Change. Nelson, U.K. and Canada.

Michael, Can (1997). New Patterns: Process and Change in Human Geography, Nelson.

Potter, Rob, Dennis Conway, Ruth Evans and Sally Lloyd Evans (2012). Key Concepts in Development Geography. Sage Publications, London and New Delhi

 

 

Paper IV: Cartography                                Max. Marks: 100

(Practical Paper)

UNIT-I

Nature and history of cartography

Map essentials and classification

Types of data and symbols’

Cartographic communication process

UNIT-II

Mapping physical phenomena: Depiction of relief: contour method, spot heights and layer shading

Gradient and Profiles: Serial, longitudinal, transverse, superimposed, composite and projected.

Methods of slope analysis: Wentworth, Smith, and Robinson.

Representation of climatic data: Hythergraphs, Climograph, Windrose Diagram.

UNIT-III

Mapping Social Phenomena: Distribution of population, density, growth, age & sex composition, urbanisation, literacy and occupational composition.

UNIT-IV

Mapping Economic data: Land use, Cropping pattern and irrigation, employment, traffic flow and accessibility

 

Notes for paper setter and the students:

 

  1. Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.
  2. 100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)   Written examination                                           50 marks

(b)   Record book                                                         20 marks

(c)  Viva Voce                                                              10 marks

(d)  Internal assessment                                             20 marks

  1. Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the Department.
  2. The question paper for the written examination shall be made by the external examiner in assistance with the internal examiner (who generally would be the course teacher). The question paper in this course will be divided into three parts. Part-I will consist of 20 multiple choice type/ true or false/ short answer type / fill in the blanks type questions carrying 0.5 mark each. Part 2 will consist of 10 short answer type questions of 2 marks each. The questions in Part-I and Part –II would be set from the entire syllabus of the course paper.  Part- III will consist of 4 choice based deive (long answer type) questions each from all units and carrying 5 marks each.  Students will have to answer 4 questions selecting 1 from each unit.
  3. External examiner would be appointed by the VC/PVC out of a panel of four university teachers supplied by the Department Chairperson in consultation with the course teacher.
  4. Record book would be evaluated by the external examiner.
  5. Viva- voce would be conducted by the external examiner and would pertain to the complete contents of the syllabus.
  6. Internal assessment would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance and classroom performance.
  7. Answer books would be evaluated jointly by external and internal examiners on the day of examination.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

 

1.             Keats, J.S. (1973): Cartographic Design and production Longman, London

2.             Monkhouse, F.J. and H.R. Wilkinson (1967) Maps and Diagrams, B.T. Publications Pvt. Ltd., Delhi 1989.

3.             Raisz Erwin (1962): Principles of Cartography, McGraw Hill, New York.

4.             Misra R.P. and A. Ramesh (1989): Fundamentals of Cartography, Concept Publishing Company New Delhi.

5.             Singh L.R. and R.N. Singh (1975): Map work and Practical Geography, Central Book Depot, Allahabad.

6.             Singh R.L. (1979): Elements of Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers, new Delhi.

7.             John Compbell (1991):Map Use and Analysis, WCB Dubuque.

8.             Dent Borden D. (1990): Cartography, Thematic Map Design, Wim.C. Brown Publishers.

9.             Kraak, M.J. and Ferjan Ormeling (2003): Cartography, Visualization of Geospatial Data, Pearson Education Limited, Patparganj, Delhi, India.

10.          Robinson, Arthur and et.al.(2005): Elements of Cartography, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

 

 

 

COURSE-V: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

 

Max. Marks: 100

UNIT-I

Nature of Economic Activity

Definition, nature, and scope of economic geography

Types of Economic Activity

Geographical Configuration of World trade (WTO, NAFTA, SAPTA, EU)

Open World Trading System (FTA): Merits & Demerits

International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment(FDI)

UNIT-II

Location and Land Use

Central Place Theory: Christaller’s Model

Agricultural Land Use: Von Thunen’s Model

Industrial location: Weber’s Model

Urban Land Use: Monocentric city and Polycentric city

UNIT-III

Resource Economics

Resource: Concept and Types

Natural Resources and Development: An Overview of Land, water and Minerals

World Production and Distribution of Coal, Petroleum and Iron Ore

UNIT-IV

Economic Growth

Concept of Economic Growth and Development

Rostow’s Stage Model

Polarized Development: Models of Myrdal, Hirschman and Friedman

Growth Pole Theory of Perroux

UNIT-V

Economic Development in India

Regional Disparities in the levels of Development

Impact of Green Revolution on Indian economy and Environment

Need for New Green Revolution

Impact of Globalisation on Indian Economy

 

Notes for paper setter and students

i)          Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.

ii)         100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)        Written examination                           80 marks

(b)         Internal assessment                            20 marks

iii)        Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the university.         The question paper for the written examination shall be set by the external examiner as per the university norms.

iv)        Internal assessment marks would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance (5 marks) and classroom performance (15 marks). The marks in the classroom attendance would be given in the following manner: ( upto 75% : Nil; 75 -80%  : 1; 81-85% : 2; 86-90% : 3; 91-95 : 4 and above 95 : 5). The classroom performance of the students would be assessed by the course teacher on the basis of performance in class room test(s)/ seminar(s)/ class room assignment(s) as per the choice of the course teacher.

v)         The paper would be set from the syllabus covering the full content. The question paper in this course will be divided into two parts. Part-1 will be compulsory and consist of  twenty multiple choice type/true or false/ very short answer type questions carrying 1 Mark each. Part II will consist of 10 deive(long answer type) questions, two from each unit are to be framed, out of which candidates will have to attempt five questions selecting one from each unit. Each question carries 12 marks.

Suggested Readings

Abler, R., Adams, J.S., and Gould, P., Spatial Organization (Prentice Hall, 1991).

Anderson, William P., Economic Geography. Rotledge 2012

Berry, B.J.L. Corkling, E.C., Ray, D.M., The Geography of Economic System Prentice Hall, 1976.

Broadford, M.G. and Kent, W.A., Human Geography: Theories and their Application, Oxford University Press, 1977.

Gautam, Alka, Aarthik Bhugol Ke Mool Tatav, Sharda Pustak Bhavan 2010

Haggeett, P., Locational Analysis in Human Geography, Arnold, 1965.

Losen, A, The Economics of Location, Yale University Press, 1954.

Misra. H.N. (Ed.) Managing Natural resources Focus on Land and water, Prentice Hall, 2014

Hartshorne,T.A. and Alexander, J.W., Economic Geography, Prentice Hall, 1988

 

 

 

 

Paper VI: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

Max. Marks 100

UNIT-I

Historical Development of Population Geography as a discipline

Nature and Scope of population geography.

Sources of population data; their quality and reliability.

Major theories of population: Malthusian perspective and Marxist perspective, Demographic transition theory. 

UNIT-II

Concept, determinants & world pattern of the following attributes of population:

Density and distribution, Growth and Literacy

UNIT-III

Concepts, determinants and patterns in India of the following attributes of population:

Age & Sex Composition, Occupational composition and Urbanisation

UNIT-IV

Migration, types, determinants and consequences

Laws of migration: Revernsteir’s and Lee’s laws of migration.

International migration pattern.

UNIT-V

Population and resources: Concepts of optimum population over population and under population.

Population policy: Concept, Population Policy of India. 

Population problems and policy formulation in developed and developing countries

 

Notes for paper setter and students

 

i)              Maximum marks for the course paper would be 100 and pass marks would be 40% in written examination. The pass marks in internal assessment will also be 40%.

ii)             100 marks for the course would be divided as follows:

(a)           Written examination                                           80 marks

(b)            Internal assessment                                           20 marks

iii)            Written examination would be of 3 hours duration and would be conducted in the university.          The question paper for the written examination shall be set by the external examiner as per the university norms.

iv)           Internal assessment marks would be given by the course teacher on the basis of lecture attendance (5 marks) and classroom performance (15 marks). The marks in the classroom attendance would be given in the following manner: ( upto 75% : Nil; 75 -80%  : 1; 81-85% : 2; 86-90% : 3; 91-95 : 4 and above 95 : 5). The classroom performance of the students would be assessed by the course teacher on the basis of performance in class room test(s)/ seminar(s)/ class room assignment(s) as per the choice of the course teacher.

v)            The paper would be set from the syllabus covering the full content. The question paper in this course will be divided into two parts. Part-1 will be compulsory and consist of  twenty multiple choice type/true or false/ very short answer type questions carrying 1 Mark each. Part II will consist of 10 deive(long answer type) questions, two from each unit are to be framed, out of which candidates will have to attempt five questions selecting one from each unit. Each question carries 12 marks.

 

 

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

 

  1. Beaufeu Garnier,J. (1966): Geography of Population, Longman, London.
  2. Brooks, S. (1977): The World Population Today (Ethnodemographic Processes), USSR Academy of Sciences; Moscow.
  3. Chandna, R.C. (2000): Geography of Population Concepts Determinants and Patterns, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi:
  4. Clarke, John, I (1972): Population Geography, Pergamon Press, New York.
  5. Charles B. Nam & Susn G. Philliber (1984): Population A Basic Orientation, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  6. Demko, G.J and Others (Eds) (1971): Population Geography- A Reader, McGraw-Hill Books Co. New York.
  7. Ghosh, B.N. (1985): Fundamentals of Population Geography, Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi.
  8. Jones, H.R. (1981): A Population Geography, Harper and Row London.
  9. Petrov, V. (1985): India: Spotlight of population, Progress Publishers, Moscow.
  10. Trewartha, G.T. (1969): A Geography of Population: World Patterns, Wiley, New York.
  11. Trewartha, G.T. (1972): The Less Developed Realm- A Geography of its population, Pergamon Press, New York.
  12. Trewartha, G.T. (1978): The More Developed Realm- A Geography of its population, Pergamon Press, New York.
  13. Weeks, John R. (1978): Population, An Introduction to Concepts and Issues, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California.
  14. Woods R.I. (1979): Population Analysis in Geography, Longman, London.
  15. Zelinsky, W. (1970): A Prologue to population, Prentice Hall, London. 

 

 

COURSE-VII                          BIO GEOGRAPHY

 

                                                                            Max. Marks: 100

                                           Unit I

Concept, field and significance of biogeography. Approaches to bio-geographical studies

Basic concepts in biogeography: Environment, Habitat, ecological niches

Ecosystem: Concept, properties, components, types and functioning.

Food chain and Food web.

                                     Unit II

Soil system: Definition, function, components and characteristics; Soil Profiles.

Biomes: Meaning and major forest biomes of the world.

Biodiversity: Meaning, types and importance of biodiversity, Biodiversity loss, Causes of biodiversity loss, Biodiversity hot spots

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Last Updated:01-06-2021